International Women’s Day State events

International Women’s Day State events

International Women’s Day State events



International Women’s Day Event – Assam

On International Women’s Day, Consumers’ Legal Protection Forum, Assam in collaboration with Consumer VOICE, New Delhi organized a sensitization workshop and slogan competition on 7th March 24 in Jyotisikha Mahila Samannay Parishad Auditorium, Panjabari, Guwahati with women professionals from various fields like doctors, lawyers, social activists etc. on the theme of Strengthen Tobacco Control Law to Save Lives’ Empowering Women towards a Smoke-Free Healthy Future. Jyotisikha Mahila Samannay Parishad, Pratishruti Cancer & Palliative Trust and Inner Wheel Club of Guwahati East supported the program. The anti-tobacco slogan competition was attended by hundreds of women from different walks of life. The first prize was awareded to Runjyoti Hazarika, second prize to Mayuri Dutta and third prize to Kabita Das. The slogans focused on stricter and stronger enforcement of the country’s anti-tobacco laws to the Prime Minister’s Office.



International Women’s Day Event – Gujarat

Consumer VOICE with its  state partner  Rajkot Saher Jilla Grahak Suraksha Mandal, Rajkot organized a sensitization workshop & slogan completion to celebrate International Women’s Day “Empowering Women Towards a Smoke-Free Healthy future #VikisitBharat” on 07th March 2024 at Central Auditorium Gardi Vidhyapith Campus, Opp. Arya Club, Anandpar, Kalawad Road, Rajkot. Around 1000 women students attended the event. Empowering women is not just a moral imperative; it is an essential step towards building a society that thrives on equality and inclusivity. As we stand at the crossroads of progress, let us unite to eradicate the harmful habit of smoking and pave the way for a healthier, smoke-free environment along with urging for stringent tobacco control policies such messages conveyed through the event. The slogans were sent to the Hon’ble Prime Minister with a representation by the organisation. Smt. Pravinaben Rangani, Hon’ble President, Rajkot Jilla Panchayat, Rajkot, Dr. Divyeshbhai Gajera, Hon’ble Medical Officer, Rajkot Cancer Care & Research Institute, Rajkot, Smt. Kanchanben Bagda, Hon’ble President, Integrated Child Development Services, Rajkot Jilla Panchayat, Rajkot, Professor Nilambariben Dave, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Dr. Khyatiben Vasavda, Hon’ble Chief Medical Officer, Rajkot Cancer Society, Rajkot were among the main speakers along with RJSM president Ramaben Mavani and Ex MP Ramji Bhai Mavani.  


International Women’s Day Event – Goa

Consumer VOICE New Delhi in association with National Organization for tobacco eradication (NOTE) India, and Self Help Group is of Goa organized sensitization programme to mark the International Women’s Day on 9 March 2024 at Mapusa, Goa. The programme was attended by more than 300 women from various health groups within the state of Goa. Women members also participated in a slogan writing competition held alongside the program, on the theme of Strengthen Tobacco Control Law to Save Lives and Empowering Women towards a Smoke-Free Healthy Future. On the occasion, women from different walks appealed to strengthen tobacco control law to curb the tobacco menace. They also urged to remove the designated smoking areas to make India 100 percent smoke free and banning the point of sale to save the younger children and youth from the menace of tobacco. All the slogans were sent to Hon’ble Prime Minister of India Sh.Narendra Modi Ji with letter representation by NOTE and Self Help Groups.

No Smoking Day event in Goa: 

Consumer Voice New Delhi in association with National Organization for tobacco eradication (NOTE) India organized an awareness program on E-cigarettes in the premises of Goa Engineering College, Farmagudi-Ponda Goa to observe ‘No Smoking Day’. Around 75 students from various departments attended the program. E-cigarettes are sometimes called “e-cigs,” “vapes,” “e-hookahs,” “vape pens,” and “electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS).” Some e-cigarettes look like regular cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. Some look like USB flash drives, pens, and other everyday items.

Elevate Your Comfort: Discover the Efficiency of Inverter Air Conditioners

Elevate Your Comfort: Discover the Efficiency of Inverter Air Conditioners

Elevate Your Comfort: Discover the Efficiency of Inverter Air Conditioners

If you prioritize robust performance, consistent temperatures, and lasting economic benefits, then inverter air conditioners are the ideal choice. Conversely, if the upfront expenses of purchasing an inverter AC pose a concern and occasional temperature variations aren’t bothersome, non-inverter ACs offer a suitable alternative. By varying motor speed, inverter air conditioners control temperature without requiring numerous start-stop cycles. When compared to non-inverter versions, this leads to less power waste, which eventually translates into energy savings.

Inverter technology-based air conditioners present a higher initial investment but offer numerous benefits. These AC units adjust compressor speed based on ambient temperature, leading to improved energy efficiency compared to non-inverter models. Opting for an inverter AC may seem like a wise decision due to its advantages. However, even with ample information and budget considerations, finalizing the choice can remain challenging. The best option depends on individual needs, capacity, budget, preferences, and environmental concerns. Practical considerations such as size, cost, capacity, noise level, and after-sales service also play crucial roles in decision-making. Here’s a comprehensive compilation of factors to consider before making a purchase. 

Inverter or non-inverter for you?

In an inverter AC, the compressor (fitted in the outdoor unit) is powered by a variable-speed drive or ‘inverter’ that enables the compressors to run at range of speeds from slow to fast, to match the output required. An inverter unit will gradually increase its capacity based on the capacity needed in the room to cool down or heat up the room. This means the compressor doesn’t need to switch on and off continuously, but instead just speeds up or down as need demands. By not actually having to stop and start several times a day, there’s less stress on the compressor and less electricity is used, which is why inverter models are generally more efficient and cost less to run. They can maintain a set temperature within a narrow range. Many split ACs in the market these days are inverter models.

Most conventional compressors run at a constant speed and these types of units vary their capacity by switching on and off at different intervals. Switching on this type of unit will start to run on full load. This can cause more wear and tear on the compressor and uses more power to start up each time. These models aren’t as efficient to run as the inverter models but can be cheaper to buy.

Types of Air Conditioners

  • Window air conditioner: This is usually utilised for freezing individual room/ chamber/ apartments. All the parts of a window air conditioner are fitted in one casing.
  • Split air conditioner: This consists of an outside metal cabinet that holds the compressor, condenser, and fan, including an indoor assembly that holds the evaporator and air handler.
  • Inverter Air Conditioner: In inverter air conditioner, an inverter controls the speed of the compressor motor, which continuously regulates the temperature.

Why opt for Inverter Air Conditioners?

The inverter air conditioner is by far the most energy efficient. It is more economical and smoother in operation than the fixed speed air conditioner. It consumes less electricity due to its variable speed of compressor and is also good for the environment.

Important Brands: LG, Samsung, Daikin, Carrier, Midea, Haier, Voltas, Hitachi, Blue Star, Whirlpool, and Panasonic etc.

What is cooling capacity?

Cooling capacity is the measurement of a cooling system and its ability to remove heat from a space. They can be described in tons to signal how much water at X temperature can be frozen in X amount of time.

How to choose right capacity

The capacity of air conditioners is measured in terms of tons. Split and window ACs are available in various capacities (1/1.5/2 tons). The tonnage of an AC does not refer to its weight; it is a unit used to determine the rate at which an AC can cool a room. In simple terms, a larger room requires an air conditioner with a higher tonnage. A single ton is rated at 12000 BTU. As per international standards, it is said that you require about 20 BTU per sq. feet.

Room size

AC capacity

Up to 100 square feet

0.8 ton

Up to 150 square feet

1.0 ton

Up to 250 square feet

1.5 ton

Up to 400 square feet

2.0 ton

The What’s and How’s

What is the inverter technology in air conditioners?

The inverter technology is the latest evolution of technology. An inverter is used to control the speed of the compressor motor, to continuously regulate the temperature. The DC inverter units have a variable-frequency drive that comprises an adjustable electrical inverter to control the speed of the electromotor, which means the compressor and the cooling/heating output. The drive converts the incoming AC current into DC and then through a modulation in an electrical inverter produces the current of desired frequency. A microcontroller can adjust the speed of the compressor.

How does an inverter save energy?

The inverter technology eliminates wasted operation in air conditioners by efficiently controlling motor speed. In inverter ACs temperature is adjusted by changing motor speed without turning the motor on and off. The motor speed in non-inverter ACs remains constant and temperature is adjusted by turning the motor on and off, thereby consuming more energy.

What is the benefit of inverter technology?

Every air conditioner is engineered to handle a maximum peak load, meaning a 1.5-ton AC is tailored for specific room dimensions, while a 1-ton AC is suited for a different size, and so forth. However, room sizes vary, and a standard 1.5-ton air conditioner will always operate at its peak power requirement when the compressor is active. Conversely, an inverter technology-based air conditioner operates continuously but draws only the necessary power to maintain the desired temperature stability. It dynamically adjusts its capacity according to the cooling demands of the room it serves, resulting in significantly lower power consumption and electricity usage.Are window ACs with inverter technology available in the market?

There is no window AC with inverter technology.

Are there star ratings for inverter ACs?

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) had notified a new star rating standard for inverter technology ACs. Most of the inverter AC models are in 3, 4 and 5-stars rating range of BEE. The star ratings for energy labelling became mandatory for inverter ACs in January 2018.

Advantages of an Inverter AC

  • About 30 per cent to 50 per cent cheaper to run as it consumes less power compared to a conventional AC.
  • No voltage fluctuation caused by compressor.
  • Maintains constant room temperature.
  • Efficient cooling and heating.
  • Can be run on solar panels.
  • Apart from savings in monthly electricity bill, there is huge savings on fuel if run on backup generator.
  • The additional price paid for an inverter AC gets recovered in electricity bills within a few months.
  • Environment-friendly due to the use of better refrigerants.
  • Safe for household wiring due to lower power consumption.
  • Suitable for large and small rooms. 

Disadvantages of an Inverter AC

  • If room is not insulated, power consumption increases and so does the electricity bill.
  • Efficiency decreases at noon if weather is extremely hot (over 45 degrees C).
  • Relatively expensive repair and maintenance due to the expensive service support and the components used.
  • Models too powerful for the room size may run frequent short cycles to achieve the target temperature. This can result in the room getting too cold or too hot; inadequate dehumidification (that is, not drying the air enough, making the room feel less comfortable); increased power usage and running costs; and wear and tear on the system.
  • Underpowered models may have to run more often at maximum output and dry the air too much. 

Keep Your Checklist Handy

  • Noise

Check the air conditioner’s noise levels; these can be found in the specifications. Some models have a quiet mode for the indoor unit, and sometimes the outdoor unit too. This may reduce the cooling/heating power or airflow but will keep the air conditioner running at a very quiet level.

A noisy indoor unit may interfere with your activities, conversation, or sleep. A noisy outdoor unit can disturb you or your neighbours.

  • Capacity

The capacity of the air conditioner should be considered depending on the floor size of the room where it will be installed. A rough measure is that an area in the range of 120 ~140 sq. ft area will need a 1-ton AC, 150 ~180 sq. ft area will need 1.5 ton, and 180 ~240 sq. ft area will need 2 ton AC.

  • Star-rating labels

Once you’ve determined the required capacity for your AC, it’s important to compare the star ratings of models with similar capacities. Star ratings range from 1 star to 5 stars, indicating varying levels of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. These ratings are standardized and implemented by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Government of India. AC units with more stars consume less electricity compared to those with lower star ratings.

For ACs used regularly for more than 4 hours per day, opting for a higher star-rated (4-5 stars) model is advisable, as it leads to lower running costs. However, if usage is less frequent, a 3-star AC can suffice. 3-star ACs are particularly popular as they strike a balance between power savings and affordability, offering consumers a significant price advantage compared to 5-star models.

After-sales services

After-sales service and other add-on features like warranty will certainly be a plus for your purchase. Look for longer warranty and a service-oriented brand that has the capabilities and good network to meet the servicing need of your product.

→ What is done in AC servicing?

AC condenser and evaporator coil cleaning. Dust and dirt are core enemies of your air conditioning or AC system as they cause overheating of the system. During AC service, the technician cleans the dust and debris from the condenser coil and evaporator coil and other key components of the system. Air conditioners should be inspected, cleaned, and serviced at least once a year.

→ Copper VS Aluminium Coils: In recent years, air conditioners have started featuring aluminium coils (condenser coils) as an alternative to copper coils. While aluminium coil ACs may come at a slightly lower cost, they often have a shorter lifespan and reduced durability. Therefore, it’s advisable not to compromise on quality and always prioritize copper coil ACs. Copper coil units typically offer a longer lifespan and are associated with fewer complaints regarding leakage. Investing in a copper coil AC ensures better reliability and longevity, outweighing any initial cost savings associated with aluminium coil models.

→Installation & cartage: While placing order, clear terms of payment (cash or cheque/draft) installation charges if any. It is generally included in the AC’s cost. Also insist for the free home delivery while placing the order.

→Slow Down the Running Costs

Heating and cooling appliances account for about 40 percent of the energy usage. To save money when running your air conditioner, there are several things you can do.

  • Size:Having the correct AC size is an important first step.
  • Star ratings:A model with more stars will be more efficient and use less power than a model with fewer stars.
  • Make your home as energy efficientas possible. 
  • Use economy mode(‘Eco mode’) if your air conditioner has one. 
  • Set the thermostat (target temperature) to a reasonable temperatureso the system doesn’t have to work too hard and use more power than necessary. 

Keeping a Reasonable Temperature

On a scorching hot day, such as one reaching 43 degrees Celsius, the temptation to set the air conditioner to a low temperature like 20 degrees Celsius to quickly cool the room may be strong. However, opting for a more moderate setting, such as 25 degrees Celsius, not only reduces wear and tear on the AC’s motor but also results in significant savings on your energy bill. Each degree cooler or warmer, in winter, can increase running costs by approximately 10 percent.

Similarly, in colder weather, like when it’s 10 degrees Celsius outside, setting the indoor temperature to 18 degrees Celsius instead of 25 degrees Celsius can lead to substantial energy savings.

Efficiency also depends on external temperature conditions. It’s generally recommended to aim for a maximum temperature differential of about 8 degrees Celsius. For instance, on a day with a high of 35 degrees Celsius, setting the indoor thermostat to 27 degrees Celsius is advised for optimal efficiency. However, many people still prefer cooler settings.

Achieving a larger temperature differential may be feasible if your house is highly thermally efficient, such as being well-insulated or having double-glazed windows.

The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has established new energy performance standards for room air conditioners, mandating that the default temperature be set at 24 degrees Celsius (75.2 degrees Fahrenheit). This regulation aims to promote energy efficiency and reduce power demand.

At a Glance: Comparing Inverter Air Conditioners

For our survey, we shortlisted regular-selling models of inverter air conditioners. The survey was carried out in March 2024.

S No. Brand




Condenser Coil


ISEER* (Wh/Wh) BEE Star Rating

Noise Level,


Price in Rs.



1 Haier 2.0 ‎HSU24E-TXS3BE-INV Copper 3.85 3 34 50990 1+10
2 Voltas 2.0 243V Vectra Elite Copper 3.81 3 45 42140 1+10
3 Lloyd 2.0 GLS24I5FWGEV Copper 5.06 5 43 51990 1+10
4 LG 2.0 RS-Q24ENXE Copper 3.96 3 32 54450 1+10
5 Carrier 2.0 ‎CAI24ES3R32F0 Copper 3.90 3 39 48990 1+10
6 Panasonic 2.0


Copper 4.50 4 39 53990 1+10
7 Samsung 2.0


Copper 4.06 3 45 52990 1+10
8 Daikin 1.5


Copper 5.20 5 38 45490 1+10
9 Panasonic 1.5 CS/CU-NU18YKY5W Copper 5.10 5 39 43990 1+9
10 Panasonic 1.5 CS/CU-NU18ZKY5W Copper 5.10 5 38 44990 1+10
11 Panasonic 1.5 CS/CU-SU18ZKYWT Copper 3.90 3 38 36990 1+10
12 LG 1.5 TS-Q19YNZE Copper 5.20 5 31 46590 1+10
13 Hitachi 1.5 R32 – RSRG518FFEO Copper 5.20 5 34 41999 1+10
14 LG 1.5


Copper 4.00 3 26 37490 1+10
15 LG 1.5 TS-Q19JNYE Copper 4.62 4 31 42490 1+10
16 Godrej 1.5 EI 18IINV5R32 WWA Copper 5.10 5 44 36990 1+10
17 Samsung 1.5 AR18CYLZABE Copper 3.96 3 45 34990 1+10
18 Carrier 1.5 CAI18ES4R33F0 Copper 4.50 4 37 37990 1+10
19 Voltas 1.5 185V Vectra Elite Copper 5.00 5 45 38100 1+10
20 Hitachi 1.5 RSOS518HEEA Copper 4.55 5 34 43700 2+10
21 Blue Star 1.5 IA318FNU Copper 3.98 3 45 35000 1+10
22 Blue star 1.5 IC518YNUR Copper 5.02 5 50.2 43990 1+10
23 Samsung 1.5 AR18CYLAMWK Copper 3.96 3 45 38699 1+10
24 Lloyd 1.5 GLS18I3FWAGC Copper 3.84 3 32 32990 1+10
25 Blue star 1.0 IA312YNU Copper 3.85 3 30.5 31990 1+10
27 Godrej 1.0 AC 1T EI 12IINV5R32-WWR Copper 5.10 5 40 32990 1+10
28 LG 1.0 RS-Q13JNYE Copper 4.70 4 21 34990 1+10
29 Carrier 1.0 CAI12ER3R34F0 Copper 3.88 3 32 30990 1+10
30 Godrej 1.0 EI 12TINV3R32-GWA Copper 3.95 3 37 28990 1+10

# Comprehensive + on compressor (For latest prices check at or

* ISEER: ISEER stands for Indian Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. It is the ratio of total annual amount of heat that the equipment can remove from the indoor air when operated for cooling in active mode to the total annual amount of energy consumed by the equipment during the same period. Higher ISEER rating means a more energy-efficient air conditioner that can help you save on your energy bills in the long run.

Soy Sauce Saga: Unveiling the Healthiest Pick!

Soy Sauce Saga: Unveiling the Healthiest Pick!

Soy Sauce Saga: Unveiling the Healthiest Pick!

Soy sauce, a dark liquid with a salty, savoury taste, has surprisingly become a staple in many Indian households. Though not traditionally used in Indian cuisine, it adds a depth of flavour to familiar dishes, particularly when preparing Chinese-inspired treats like noodles, fried rice, or Manchurian delights, and other recipes such as barbecued foods. However, is soy sauce truly the healthy addition it seems? While often praised for its potential health benefits, there’s more to this condiment than meets the eye. Many people are unaware that the thickness and colour of soy sauce are a fascinating window into its age, revealing a world of hidden complexity beneath its seemingly simple surface. In this article, we will explore soy sauce, how it is prepared, the factors impacting its healthiness, and equip you with the knowledge to choose the best option for your taste buds and health.

                                                                                                                       Richa Pande

Origins of Soy Sauce

Soy sauce is believed to be one of the oldest seasonings that humans have been using. Its origin can be traced back to prehistoric times when it was likely used to preserve food and prevent spoilage. In the sixth century, when Buddhism was introduced to Japan from China, a new vegetarian seasoning was also introduced. This paste was made from fermented beans and is considered to be the earliest version of soy sauce, replacing the previous preparation that involved fermentation with fish in Japan. During the 14th century, Japan developed its distinct culture and soy sauce underwent significant advancements, resulting in a seasoning that had an ideal balance of major flavour-enhancing proteins, amino acids, sugars, and alcohol. Back in the 1600s, the Dutch and Japanese brought it over to Europe through trading.


How is it made?

There are two different methods used to prepare soy sauce. One involves fermentation with microorganisms, while the other uses chemicals to break down the ingredients. However, the chemical method is not considered traditional or authentic, and the resulting product is believed to be of lower quality.

The traditional method of making soy sauce is a meticulous and slow process that requires patience and expertise. It involves four main ingredients – soybeans, wheat/barley, salt, and koji, which is a mold (Aspergillus oryzae). The soybeans are soaked and cooked, while the wheat is roasted and crushed. Then, the mixture is inoculated with koji spores to start the fermentation process, which can last for months or even years. During fermentation, the koji breaks down proteins and starches into umami-rich compounds. The mixture, known as moromi, is stirred regularly and the temperature is carefully controlled. After fermentation, the moromi is pressed to extract the liquid soy sauce. This can be done using traditional wooden presses or modern equipment. The raw soy sauce is then filtered, pasteurized, and sometimes further aged to develop deeper flavours. However, modern methods prioritize faster production and often involve hydrolysis, where soybeans are treated with acid or enzymes to speed up the umami development. Additives such as colour, flavourings, and preservatives are also frequently added to mimic the taste and texture of traditionally fermented soy sauce. Apart from the production process, ageing plays a crucial role in the character of soy sauce. Soy sauces that are aged traditionally, such as Japanese tamari, are darker, thicker, and have more complex flavours due to extended fermentation. Conversely, modern methods often prioritize speed, resulting in lighter, thinner products. Additionally, the modern process produces some undesirable compounds that are not present in naturally fermented soy sauce, including some carcinogens. They can also have monosodium glutamate added to them for flavour enhancement and may contain high levels of sodium due to their high added salt content.

FSSAI’s Specifications for Soy Sauce

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) plays a crucial role in ensuring public health by enforcing strict regulations for various food products, including soybean sauce. These regulations are designed to ensure consistency, quality, and safety for consumers across the country. A compliant soybean sauce must contain wholesome soybeans with completely deactivated trypsin inhibitors to ensure proper digestion. Salt and nutritive sweeteners are the foundation of the sauce, while spices and condiments are allowed to add depth and complexity to its flavour. Preservatives may be used to ensure extended shelf life and product stability, but only those approved by the FSSAI. Specific food additives may also be incorporated to enhance certain properties of the final product. The FSSAI’s regulations prioritize microbial safety and require adherence to stringent standards to ensure a shelf-stable product suitable for consumption. Apart from ensuring safety, specific characteristics define high-quality soybean sauce, such as a concentrated and flavourful product with a tangy taste and at least 1.0% total nitrogen content. Proper packaging is also mandated to preserve the product’s integrity and quality, with containers required to be well-filled and occupying at least 90% of their water capacity.

Check the labels!

While picking soy sauce from the market, one must be careful. Opt for traditionally prepared pasteurised soy sauces. They might be expensive but are better for health and taste better. Traditionally prepared gluten-free alternatives are also available in the market. If you are choosing chemically processed soy sauces, make sure you pick a brand that has low sodium content, and no added monosodium glutamate. It can be labelled as E621 on the back. Also, from the ingredient list, you can check the amount of soy in the sauce. If you plan to prepare recipes for children, pick a soy sauce that doesn’t contain Disodium inosinate i.e. E631. Pick the brand with more soy content than salt and sugar in the product. People with gluten intolerance can check if wheat/ barley was used in the preparation of this soy sauce. If wheat or barley is mentioned in the ingredient list, gluten-sensitive people must avoid it. Always prefer soy sauce packed in glass bottles over the ones packed in plastic bottles.



Brand 1- Ingredient List Glass Packaging

Brand 2- Ingredient List Glass Packaging

Brand 3- Ingredient List Glass Packaging

Brand 4- Ingredient List Glass Packaging

Brand 5- Ingredient List Glass Packaging

Brand 6- Ingredient List. Available in both Plastic and Glass Packaging

Brand 7- Ingredient List Glass Packaging

Brand 8- Ingredient List glass Packaging

Soy sauce, when left unopened, can retain its quality for a span of 2 to 3 years. However, upon exposure to air, its flavour begins to diminish. Once the bottle is opened, it’s crucial to store it properly to maintain its optimal taste. Refrigeration is key in preserving the freshness and flavour of soy sauce after opening. By keeping it chilled, you can extend its shelf life and ensure each use delivers the rich, savoury taste it’s known for.

SC Questions Bar Association on Treating Clients as Consumers and Holding Lawyers Liable for Service Deficiencies

SC Questions Bar Association on Treating Clients as Consumers and Holding Lawyers Liable for Service Deficiencies

SC Questions Bar Association on Treating Clients as Consumers and Holding Lawyers Liable for Service Deficiencies

During a significant hearing on February 22, 2024, pertaining to the case of the Advocates Association, involving the Bar of Indian Lawyers represented by its President Jasbir Singh Malik versus D.K. Gandhi Ps National Institute of Communicable Diseases (Diary No. 27751 – 2007), the Supreme Court posed inquiries to the advocates representing the Bar Association.

Why Can’t Client Be ‘Consumer’ & Lawyer’s Negligence Be ‘Deficiency of Service’ Under Consumer Protection Act?”

The Senior Counsel responded, stating that the client, in this context, is the recipient of the service, not in a commercial or trade capacity  

Dr Prem Lata Legal Head VOICE

During the hearing of an appeal against a case lingering for 17 years, the Supreme Court, which had previously stayed an order issued by the National Commission in 2007, raised several queries. The advocate representing the Bar of Indian Lawyers asserted that lawyers choose this profession for its noble character, highlighting its role in the judicial dispensation process. The advocate emphasized the fiduciary nature of the lawyer-client relationship, comparing it to a trustee relationship where trust and faith are pivotal.

The Supreme Court posed an additional query: In instances of service deficiency or negligence leading to loss for the litigant, is it possible to sue the lawyer for damages?

The counsel responded affirmatively, stating that indeed, in such cases, the litigant can pursue legal action for damages, specifically within a civil court.

Justice Mithal inquired further, questioning whether the authority of the civil court, despite the Bar Council handling misconduct cases, could be delegated to a specialized court.

The advocate for the Bar Associations explains that there are two approaches to the issue:

  • The Bar Council has the power to impose the costs under the Act itself. Bar council does that in appropriate cases.
  • The advocate for the Bar Associations elucidates that when considering the jurisdiction of a civil court, it entails a general principle in law. Several inherent problems arise within this framework, rendering it incompatible and unjustified if consumer commissions are allowed to function akin to civil courts.

Background of the Case

In reference to a case decided by the National Commission back in 2007, wherein the matter of D.K. Gandhi v M. Mathias (2007 CTJ 909 (CP)NCDRC) was addressed, it was ruled that services provided by an advocate to a client during litigation fall under the purview of the Consumer Protection Act. Following this decision, various advocate bodies, including the Bar of Indian Lawyers, Delhi High Court Bar Association, and Bar Council of India, approached the Hon’ble Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, led by Justice L.S. Panta and Justice B. Sudarshan Reddy, intervened and stayed the judgment of the apex consumer commission, asserting that lawyers offer legal assistance rather than a service to their clients.

This case has traversed through various levels, beginning at the consumer forum and reaching the State Commission in Delhi. On March 10, 2006, the State Commission ruled that advocates would not fall under the purview of consumer forums. In response, the aggrieved consumer filed a revision petition before the National Commission, which extensively examined the matter, citing numerous judgments related to services provided by professionals.

Acknowledging the nobility of the legal profession, reference was made to the case of Indian Medical Association v V. Shantha (1995 CTJ 969 SC), where the terms “profession” and “occupation” were extensively discussed. It was agreed that success in every case is not guaranteed for professionals, such as doctors, and if a medical professional cannot cure a disease, it does not imply deficient services under the Consumer Protection Act. However, the services rendered are recognized under the Act, highlighting the noble and life-saving nature of the medical profession.

Similar arguments were presented in the case of M.K. Gandhi, and a precedent was found in the matter of Srimathi v Union of India (AIR 1996 Mad 427), emphasizing that although advocates are governed by statutory enactments and rules, there is no provision enabling the bar council to address disputes between advocates and clients, including compensation for damages and refunds.

The National Commission also referred to the case of K. Vishnu v National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission in 2000, asserting that, despite advocates being officers of the court, they cannot be exempted from their fundamental role of providing services to their clients in exchange for consideration. Additionally, the National Commission cited Mathew Jackob v State of Punjab (2005 CTJ 1085 SC), where the Apex court affirmed that, in the law of negligence, professionals such as lawyers may be held liable for negligence due to their specialized skills.

The Apex court is currently reviewing the case on its merits, marking the culmination of a nearly 17-year-long legal journey. The issues under discussion hold significant interest for consumers, especially considering that, over time, various professionals have been brought within the purview of Consumer Commissions through Supreme Court pronouncements.

The National Commission’s 2007 judgment is particularly noteworthy, characterized by its thorough and reasoned approach. It extensively referenced key excerpts from earlier Supreme Court judgments. The questions now presented before the Apex court are not novel; they were comprehensively addressed in the National Commission’s order, indicating a continuity in the legal arguments and considerations surrounding this case.

With the case emerging from a 17-year hiatus and finally coming under scrutiny, there is optimism among consumers for a favourable outcome from the Apex court. As the Supreme Court deliberates on the merits of the case, I will keep the readers informed and provide updates once a decision is reached

Alert Consumers: Legal Queries and Responses

Alert Consumers: Legal Queries and Responses

Alert Consumers: Legal Queries and Responses

Question 1. I made a purchase with a total value of Rs 7983 on November 30, 2023. Despite Flipkart confirming delivery on December 25, 2023, I never received the product. Can I lodge a First Information Report (FIR) against Flipkart for their service deficiency in dispatching an incorrect item in my order? (Deepak)

Answer: The Allahabad High Court has quashed the FIR filed against Flipkart, declaring the company not guilty under criminal law Section 79(2) or 79(3) of the Indian Technology Act 2000 (amended 2008). The court ruled that Flipkart is exempt from liability if actions were taken with ‘due diligence.’ Additionally, Sections 85 and 86 of the Consumer Protection Act of 2019 hold intermediaries responsible for receiving notices on behalf of sellers, providing information, and disclosing their whereabouts to consumers and courts. In this context, Flipkart, being a market-based platform and not an inventory-based e-commerce entity, is deemed not liable for product defects.

Question 2. Must I pay the entire year’s fee despite studying for only half the year? I enrolled in an LLB program at a private college but had to leave after six months due to a family tragedy. The college is insisting on the payment of the full year’s fee. (Amit Parmar)

Answer: In the Supreme Court case of Usmania Islamia Academy vs State of Karnataka, it was established that an institute is permitted to collect fees for one semester and not for the entire course or year. Consequently, the college is not entitled to demand additional payments, even if they cite their rules. Any undertaking that is not in accordance with the law or contradicts Supreme Court orders holds no legal value. Additionally, the college is prohibited from retaining the original certificates of a candidate who decides to leave the college or course. This directive aligns with the UGC Circular of 2007 issued in response to the aforementioned judgment.

Question 3. Is it possible for an individual member to lodge a consumer complaint against a cooperative society? (Harsh Tripathi)


  • Indeed, both an individual member and multiple members have the right to file a consumer complaint against a cooperative society.
  • While co-operative society matters are typically addressed through the Registrar of Societies as an arbitrator, Consumer Commissions provide an additional remedy for consumers. It’s noteworthy that the arbitration clause in the Co-operative Societies Act does not prohibit seeking recourse through Consumer Commissions.

Question 4. Can a consumer complaint be filed when a builder constructs a small market complex next to a residential complex, labelling it as a dispensary and gym room? (Pramod)

Answer: Certainly, residents of the housing society have the right to file a complaint regarding the misrepresentation of a small market complex as a dispensary and gym room. It is advisable to verify the approvals from the relevant authorities and raise concerns accordingly. If there is no formal information about such a complex displayed on the project’s website, it could be deemed as unfair and misleading under the Consumer Protection Act of 2019.

Question 5. I have presented all my evidence in court, and the case is now scheduled for the opposite party’s (OP) evidence. However, they have failed to appear for the last three scheduled dates. (Guddu Sasaram Rohtas)

Answer: File an application with the court, requesting to proceed ex parte against the Opposite Party (OP).

Question 6. What distinguishes written arguments from oral arguments? (Mittar Pal Sharma)

Answer: Written arguments constitute a comprehensive presentation of your case, encompassing references to the opposing party’s (OP) stance, supporting evidence, and relevant case law. You have the flexibility to cite legal precedents favoring your position and include citations or case law.

Oral arguments involve presenting the same information to the court, with the added element of the court potentially posing questions while you articulate your case and arguments.

Question 7. An order in favour of my client has been issued in one case, but the same matter is also pending before a civil court. Is this order considered valid, and what implications does it have on the ongoing civil case? (Pawan)

Answer: Immediately withdraw the civil case; once done, this order becomes final. It is not permissible to seek enrichment by pursuing the same claim in two different forums.

Question 8. I enrolled in two courses, but currently, I am exclusively pursuing the regular course and have not participated in any examinations or practical aspects of the distance course at IGNOU. Is there any potential issue with this situation? (Vivek)

Answer: As long as neither of the two courses or degrees is solely based on regular attendance, you can continue to pursue both. It ultimately depends on your approach to managing exam schedules. However, once you are already committed to one course, the other may no longer be a priority.

Question 9. I lost my job due to the actions of the Opposing Party (OP), but I lack evidence such as job records, appointment letters, or salary slips. How can I establish incidental loss in the court proceedings? (Ravi)

Answer: Proving it without documents is challenging. Your affidavit alone will not suffice as secondary evidence unless you can substantiate it with significant facts.

Question 10. Do I qualify for the position of PGT teacher if I completed my MA through distance education from 2021 to 2023 and also pursued regular B.Ed. during the same academic session? (Neha)

Answer:  Two considerations come into play – neither of the degrees should be pursued in regular mode simultaneously, as physical presence at two locations simultaneously is not feasible under UGC guidelines. Additionally, meeting the qualifying criteria for the position determines eligibility. However, other rules or criteria established by your selection board are not explicitly outlined.

Question 11. Attracted by promises from the Country Vacation club, I paid 10,000/- in 2010 after being told I had won a gift and would become a member. Subsequently, I realized my error, but they are refusing to refund the money. (Yash)

Answer:  Examine the terms and conditions you agreed to upon becoming a member. If the membership was on an annual basis, it may be applicable at this point. Nonetheless, refraining from further financial loss has undoubtedly been a prudent decision on your part.

Question 12. The builder is withholding the advance maintenance payment I made for five years, even after the formation of the society, despite having purchased the flat just seven months ago. (Vijay)

Answer:  The builder is responsible for maintenance until possession is handed over to the society. Subsequently, the society takes charge of maintenance affairs. Going forward, you are required to make payments to the society. If any amount differs from what was stipulated in your agreement, you have the right to make a claim.

Question 13. As a PVR Privilege Plus member using the latest version of the Cinema App, I noticed that the Privilege voucher section is empty when attempting to make payment for snacks. (Raj Makkar)


  • Reach out to the cinema hall authorities for clarification and rectification.
  • Report your issue to the National Consumer Helpline (NCH) seeking assistance and resolution.
  • If you face deficiencies in services, receive misleading information through apps, or experience enticing practices amounting to unfair trade practices, you have the option to issue a legal notice or file a consumer complaint.

Question 14. A person intends to initiate a medical negligence case directly with the National Commission as their primary complaint. It is advised that the National Commission may not entertain cases with bills less than two crores. However, the individual is aware that their sought compensation exceeds two crores, as they have endured significant suffering, undergone multiple subsequent operations due to negligence, and continue to face ongoing challenges.

Essential considerations:

  1. Is it necessary for him to seek expert opinion?

– Application of “res ipsa loquitur.”

  1. Why can’t he directly file the case before the National Commission?

– Due to an increase in pecuniary jurisdiction:

– District Commission: Cases up to 50 lakh

– State Commission: Cases above 50 lakh to 2 crores

– National Commission: Cases exceeding two crores

With two key aspects at hand:

  1. Addressing the posed inquiries.
  2. Acknowledging procedural modifications implemented in the new Act.

Case No 1

In the case of Neena Aneja & Anr. versus Jai Prakash Associates Ltd, Civil Appeal Nos. 3766-3767 of 2020, decided on 16th March 2021, a significant legal point addressed pertains to pecuniary jurisdiction during the transitional period of the enactment of the Consumer Protection Act 2019.

The Consumer Protection Act 2019 was enacted by Parliament and published in the Gazette of India on 9th August 2019. The provisions of the Act were notified by S.O. 2351(E) dated 15th July 2020, to come into force on 20th July 2020. Additional provisions were brought into force by S.O. 2421(E) dated 23rd July 2020, with effect from 24th July 2020. Given the varied dates of enactment and notification, some consumer commissions began accepting cases based on the new pecuniary jurisdiction set by the Act, while others did so after the official enforcement date.

The Hon’ble Supreme Court, in its analysis, considered the legal position concerning the change of forum based on prior decisions across two-judge benches, three-judge benches, constitutional benches, and rulings from various High Courts. The Court aimed to determine the legislative scheme governing jurisdictional provisions.

The Court concluded that proceedings initiated before the commencement of the Act of 2019 on 20th July 2020 would continue before the forums established under the Act of 1986. This includes the National Commission, State Commissions, and District Commissions, and they would not be transferred based on the pecuniary jurisdiction set for the forums established under the Act of 2019. The decision reflects a careful consideration of the transitional period and ensures continuity in the adjudication of cases based on the relevant jurisdictional framework.

Case No 2

  • ECGC Limited vs Mokul Shriram Epc Jv
  • A. NO. 99210 OF 2021 In Civil Appeal No. 1842 Of 2021
  • Decided On February 15, 2022

Head Note – Condition of payment of the amount for filing appeal shall be governed by the act under which complaint was filed.

Consumer Protection Act, 2019 – Section 67 Proviso – Onerous condition of payment of 50% of the amount awarded will not be applicable to the complaints filed prior to the commencement of the 2019 Act.

1986 Act 2019 Act
23. xx 67. xx
Provided further that no appeal by a person who is required to pay any amount in terms of an order of the National Commission shall be entertained by the Supreme Court unless that person has deposited in the prescribed manner fifty per cent of that amount or rupees fifty thousand, whichever is less. Provided further that no appeal by a person who is required to pay any amount in terms of an order of the National Commission shall be entertained by the Supreme Court unless that person has deposited fifty per cent of that amount in the manner as may be prescribed


The question now being examined here is as to whether the present appeal would be governed under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 [For short, the ‘2019 Act’] or under the erstwhile 1986 Act.

In terms of Section 67 of the 2019 Act, no appeal against the order of National Commission shall be entertained by the Supreme Court unless the person has deposited fifty per cent of the amount required to be paid. Whereas, under the 1986 Act, by virtue of a proviso inserted vide Central Act 62 of 2002 w.e.f. 15.3.2003, the condition was that no appeal shall be entertained by the Supreme Court unless the person who is required to pay the amount deposits fifty per cent of the amount or fifty thousand, whichever is less.

SC Held

“In view of the binding precedents of the Constitution Bench judgments referred to above, we hold that onerous condition of payment of 50% of the amount awarded will not be applicable to the complaints filed prior to the commencement of the 2019 Act. Therefore, the I.A. is allowed.”                                          

Case No 3

  • Narinder Chopra vs Jaiprakash Associates (NC)
  • Consumer Complaint No 3258 0f 2017along with IA 330 of 2021&IA 1130 Of 2021
  • Decided On May 16, 2021

Law Points:

  • Whether pending matters are to be transferred to appropriate commission after enhancement of pecuniary jurisdiction.

NC Held

  • There is no provision for transfer of pending cases in the new Act of 2019.
  • The transitional provisions contained in Sections 31, 45 and 56 expressly indicate that the adjudicatory personnel who were functioning as Members of the District Commission, SCDRC and NCDRC under the erstwhile legislation shall continue to hold office under the new legislation.
  • Section 107 status quo
  • In prior rulings, the NCDRC had interpreted the amendments of 2002, which increased pecuniary jurisdiction, as having prospective effects. Reference can be made to cases such as Southfield Paints and Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. vs New India Assurance Co. Ltd. and Premier Automobiles Ltd. v. Dr. Manoj Ramachandran. In these instances, the NCDRC affirmed that the amendments, which augmented pecuniary jurisdiction, apply prospectively.

Issue-Mandatory BIS Mark

Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016, issued Notification dated 21.01.2020, making it mandatory for domestic pressure cooker to bear Standard Mark under a licence from Bureau of Indian Standards.


  1. Cloudtail India Private Limited was doing e-commerce through Amazon website and listed ‘Amazon Basics Stainless Steel Outer Lid Pressure Cooker, 4 Litre’ on above website and sold 1033 pressure cookers in India after 01.02.2021. These pressure cookers were manufactured by “Zhejiang Supor Company Limited, Damaiyu Economic Investment Zone, Yuhuan, Taizhou, Zhjiang, China” and bears “European Commission Standard” mark as established in the European Union and were imported into India, prior to issue of the Order.
  2. Central Consumer Protection Authority is a statutory authority constituted under Section 10 of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 and under the power Section 18 of the Act, issued notice dated 29.11.2021 to the company to show cause as it were selling pressure cooker in violation of the Order, which was liable to be held as defective, violative of consumer right and amounts to unfair trade practice, within the meaning of the Act.
  3. The Cloudtail India Private Limited submitted its reply dated 11.01.2022, stating
  • That the pressure cookers in question were manufactured by “Zhejiang Supor Company Limited, Damaiyu Economic Investment Zone, Yuhuan, Taizhou, Zhjiang, China” and conforms to the “European Commission Standard” mark as established in the European Union Directives-2014/68/EU granted by TUV SUD, valid up to 13.12.2030 and holds a valid certification of conformance.
  • That the product is of requisite quality, pre-shipment inspection by a nominated third-party inspection agency is carried out and product is imported after satisfaction. There was no complaint, related to safety of the pressure cooker since its introduction in the market.
  • That import of this product in India was suspended prior to 01.02.2021, i.e. enforcement of the Order.
  • The Order mandates domestic pressure cooker to bear BIS mark by the manufacturer and is not applicable for an importer.
  • The Frequently Asked Questions, as addressed by the Bureau of Indian Standard (uploaded in February 2019 and again on 14.11.2019), explicitly state that if a product was imported to India before the last date of implementation or manufactured by domestic producers before the same date, it is permissible to sell such products.
  • The pressure cooker is neither ‘defective’ within the meaning of Section 2(10) nor the appellant has committed any ‘unfair trade practice’ within the meaning of Section 2(47) of the Act. The product meets all objective criteria of Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 and Consumer Protection Act, 2019 and the notice is liable to be discharged.
  • That a test report dated 15.02.2022, conducted by Delhi Test House (a National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratory), along with a Certificate bearing the “European Commission Standard” mark in accordance with the European Union Directives 2014/68/EU, granted by TUV SUD, is available.

Action by CCPA

Authority called for reports in connection with sold cookers without BIS Mark.

  • Director General Investigation, vide its report dated 04.07.2022 confirmed that product sold without mark after enforcement of the Order, manufacture, import, sell, distribution, hire, lease, store or exhibit for sale is violative of Section 17 of Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016.
  • Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, vide its report dated. 28.09.2022 confirmed that no such exemption was issued by it, permitting sale of pressure cooker in the country, imported prior to the date of enforcement of the Order, which has no BIS mark.

Order by CCPA

  • By virtue of its order dated 04.11.2022, the Central Consumer Protection Authority determined that following the implementation of the Order on 01.02.2021, all domestically sold pressure cookers in India must adhere to IS 2347:2017. Non-compliance will be subject to scrutiny.
  • The pressure cookers which do not conform to IS 2347 :2017 are liable to be held as defective within the meaning of Section 2(10) of the Act and violative of the consumer’s right as defined under Section 2(9) of the Act.
  • Admittedly, the appellant had sold 1033 pressure cookers after 01.02.2021, which did not conform IS 2347 :2017. The Cloudtail India Private Limited is directed to recall 1033 pressure cookers, sold by the company in the country, refunding its price to the consumers within 45 days and a penalty of Rs.100000/- has been imposed upon it for selling the pressure cooker, in violation of Quality Control Order, 2020. Hence the present appeal has been filed before Apex Commission (NC) for adjudication.

Stand of appellant company before NC

The company restated its position in the appeal, as mentioned earlier. Nevertheless, the appellant company also included the assertion that the Central Consumer Protection Authority’s finding labelling the pressure cooker as ‘defective’ due to the absence of the ISI mark is legally questionable. Furthermore, it argued that any violation of the Domestic Pressure Cooker (Quality Control) Order, 2020 should fall under the purview of the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016, rather than the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.

Analysis by National Commission

‘Consumer Rights’ as defined under Section 2 (9) includes

  • The right to be protected against the marketing of goods, products or services which are hazardous to life and property.
  • The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods, products or services, as the case may be, so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices.
  • The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods, products or services at competitive prices.
  • The right to be heard and to be assured that consumer’s interests will receive due consideration at appropriate fora.
  • The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practice or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and
  • The right to consumer awareness.

‘Defect’ as defined under Section 2(10) of the Act is quoted below:

“defect” means any fault, imperfection or shortcoming in the quality, quantity, potency, purity or standard which is required to be maintained by or under any law for the time being in force or under any contract, express or implied or as is claimed by the trader in any manner whatsoever in relation to any goods or product and the expression “defective” shall be construed accordingly.”

Observations by the National Commission

Section 16 of the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 mandates the compulsory use of the standard mark. With the enforcement of the Quality Control Order, 2020, the use of the standard mark has become obligatory. Despite a product bearing the European Commission Standard Marks or satisfying the norms of the Bureau of Indian Standard in subsequent test reports, consumer rights must also be considered. Consumers have the right to purchase products with the BIS mark only after 01.02.2021. If the BIS mark is not affixed or certified, and the product is sold, it amounts to a violation of consumer rights, especially considering the mandatory requirement of the standard mark after the implementation of the Domestic Pressure Cooker (Quality Control) Order, 2020.

Supreme Court Verdict  

Various earlier judgments on the issue:

  • Sumat Prasad Jain vs Sheojanam Prasad (Dead) & Ors (1973) 1 SCC 56
  • Delhi High Court in Bottled Water Processor Association vs Union of Inida, 2010
  • SCC Online Delhi 2038 and Andhra Pradesh High Court in Sri Seetharamanjaneya Swamyvari Seva Sangam vs Superintending Engineer, APSPDCL, 2015 SCC Online Hyd. 335

Above judgments highlighted the significance of BIS standards and held that people at large will be put to risk and public interest would be jeopardised if the safety standards are not complied with.

CCPA holds power under Section 18 of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 and authority can exercise its power suo moto and to protect the consumers’ interest it can pass any suitable order. It cannot be said that it was without jurisdiction.

There is no evidence of procedural irregularities in the issuance of the order by CCPA. Subsequent to the commencement of the proceedings, a report dated 04.07.2022 has been acquired from the Director General (Investigation). The appellant has been granted a comprehensive opportunity for a hearing, including notice and access to the report.

CCPA’s order stands confirmed.

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