Green Action Week – Sensitization Workshops and Webinars

Green Action Week – Sensitization Workshops and Webinars

Green Action Week – Sensitization Workshops and Webinars

India generates approximately 9.46 million tonnes (MT) of plastic waste per year. This figure is based on the Central Pollution Control Board’s projection that an estimated 25,940 tonnes per day of plastic waste generated in the country. Of this, 15,384 tonnes of plastic waste, or nearly 60 per cent, is collected and recycled while the remaining 10,556 tonnes of the plastic waste remains uncollected and littered in the environment, as per parliamentary reply. 

On the occasion of Green Action Week 2021, Consumer VOICE organized workshops, webinars and clean-up drives to educate stakeholders including students, consumers and general public on plastic pollution and the harmful effects of plastic.

Stakeholders’ meet – 22nd September 2021

An information and advocacy stakeholders’ meet was organised at Consumer VOICE, New Delhi Office to disseminate information on the harmful effects of plastic. The participants were the team leaders selected for creating a chain reaction among their group members which would lead up to a number of over 600 consumers being educated on the subject of shunning plastic items. This majorly consists of college students and Resident Welfare Associations in New Delhi. 

In the meeting different types of plastic products including single use plastics were shown and their harmful effects on the environment were discussed especially those related to single use plastics. Participants were encouraged to reduce using plastic material from their day-to-day life and communicate the same to the society.

Shri Ashim Sanyal, COO, Consumer VOICE briefed about various types of plastic materials and how as responsible consumers we should reduce their use in our daily lives. Various examples were given by him especially how easily we can give up single use plastics from our routine life and how we can recognize the various grades of plastic materials available in the market.

Rinki Sharma, Campaign Lead, discussed single use plastic and how plastic pollution is impacting our environment. She also spoke about how by taking small steps we can reduce the burden of plastic including substitution of carry bags and containers. The participants were also informed in detail about various aspects related to disposal of plastic material. The team leaders were asked to set examples in their institutions and RWAs on daily segregation of plastic disposal. College students were encouraged to take weekly dissemination sessions for a larger outreach of the messaging. A  Q & A session was held at the end where participants raised various issues.

Webinar – 4th october 

Shri Vinay Jaju, environmentalist and co-founder of SwitchON foundation addressed the students about single use plastic and how plastic pollution is impacting our environment in the interaction meet organised. He also spoke about how by taking small steps we can reduce the burden of plastic including substitution of carry bags and containers. He highlighted the importance of involving youth in tackling the problem.

 The students showed a lot of interest and also shared their concerns and raised the questions. Ms.Rinki Sharma, Campaign Lead, Consumer VOICE also highlighted the importance of youth members of the society to reduce plastic burden and requested all participants to avoid single use plastic by using alternatives.

Workshop – 10th October 2021

A sensitization workshop took place to educate young girls and women about plastic pollution by Consumer VOICE as a part of Green Action week activities in New Delhi. In the workshop, experts explained about reduction  and  how to recycle plastic to tackle the burden of plastic in our daily lives. Experts Dr.Manisha and Ms.Nalini Kolipaka demonstrated how we can make use plastic in a useful way. Participants took keen interest in the subject matter and also shared their experiences .They also participated in the activities organised during the workshop. Ms.Rinki Sharma gave a brief introduction about Green Action Week activities and how youth esp young girls and women can play an important role in tackling plastic pollution. Ms.Beena Sharma, educationist also spoke about using alternatives to plastic. Participants were given cloth bags made from recyclable material.

Workshop – 23rd Oct 2021

Consumer VOICE in collaboration with New Delhi Nature Society and We Mean to Clean organised plastic clean up drive today behind Vasant Kunj mall Delhi.(urban forest area). Enthusiastic volunteers joined the clean-up drive and picked the plastic waste such as water bottles, plastic bags, plastic glasses etc .Ms.Rinki Sharma Campaign Lead, Consumer VOICE, Mr. Verhaen Khanna, Founder of New Delhi Nature Society and Mr. Manish Khurana ,co-founder of We Mean to Clean shared information on the perils of plastic pollution, importance of doing joint efforts and fighting plastic pollution together. This area was chosen to clean plastic so that animals are not going to chew the plastic dumped /thrown by people passing from the area and also plastic waste will not go in the small water ponds available there. Cloth bags were distributed to volunteers besides refreshments.

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Stakeholders’ Consultation in West Bengal – “Strengthening Road Safety, to Save Precious Lives on Roads”

Stakeholders’ Consultation in West Bengal – “Strengthening Road Safety, to Save Precious Lives on Roads”

Stakeholders’ Consultation in West Bengal – “Strengthening Road Safety, to Save Precious Lives on Roads”

Consumer VOICE along with its state partner, Honcho Tech for Good Foundation organised a state level workshop in Kolkata on “Strengthening Road Safety, to Save Precious Lives on Roads in West Bengal” on 8th October.

The workshop was joined by dignitaries including Shri Arindam Mani (WBCS, EXE) Addl. Secretary Transport Department, Govt of WB, Smt Santi Sen Das (WBPS), Addl. Special Superintendent, WB Police, Shri Priyanjan Das (WBCS, EXE) Dy. Managing Director, WB Transport Corporation, Dr. Abhik Ghosh, Senior Consultant ENT & Head Neck Surgeon, Apollo Hospitals Kolkata, Secretary, Protect The Warriors; Secretary, IMA Salt Lake City, Shri Swapnomoy Chakraborty, Renowned Bengali Novelist, Shri Indranil Dasgupta, Director social Initiatives, Honcho, and Shri Ashim Sanyal, COO, Consumer VOICE where experts discussed challenges and how to strengthen road safety in the state and MVAA 2019.

Smt. Santi Sen Das, WBPS (Addl. Special Superintendent, West Bengal Police) while emphasising on the importance of collaborative efforts towards road safety said that  “It is a high time that people should realise the need for taking road safety measures not only for themselves but also for the society. Each individual in this society should inculcate road safety culture in their mind and actions. Then only the mortality and accident ratio can be controlled. No more nike Circus in the city and districts can be tolerated,”

Dr. Abhik Ghosh (Senior Consultant ENT and Head Neck Surgeon, Apollo Hospitals Kolkata; Secretary, Protect The Warriors; Secretary, IMA Salt Lake City) talked about Good Samaritan Law .He said that “Every individual of this state should be made aware about the Good Samaritan Law as it will give them an insight how to act cohesively during any accidents. They should be imbibed with proper knowledge how to handle an accident patient if anything occurs in the road. Neglecting the situation and ignoring the patients will cause harm for every citizen in our society if they don’t practise this habit because nobody knows when they will face such an incident in their life.”

Shri.Priyanjan Das, WBCS, EXE (Dy. Managing Director, West Bengal Transport Corporation)  discussed about various road safety measures adopted by the West Bengal Transport Corporation .He highlighted about  various Capacity Building Trainings with the Bus Drivers to decrease Road accidents and to provide basic life support to the victims. He spoke about maintenance aspect by and told that WBTC always maintains their buses, so that mechanical fault shouldn’t be the cause of road accident and fatalities.”

Shri. Swapnomoy Chakraborty (Renowned Bengali Novelist) emphasised on role of citizens and said that “People should utilise their senses and give priorities to the Road Safety Education by not ignoring their common duties as a good citizen of Kolkata. Then only the City and the Districts can able to enforce Road Safety Measures more effectively.”

Shri Ashim Sanyal discussed about various provisions of MVAA 2019 and gave practical examples of other states where MVAA 2019 is implemented. Shri Indronil Dasgupta made presentation about current road safety scenario.

Stakeholders’ Consultation in Madhya Pradesh – ‘Fast Implementation of MVAA 19 to save lives on roads’

Stakeholders’ Consultation in Madhya Pradesh – ‘Fast Implementation of MVAA 19 to save lives on roads’

Stakeholders’ Consultation in Madhya Pradesh – ‘Fast Implementation of MVAA 19 to save lives on roads’

Shri Ramji Shrivastava, Superintendent of Police, Headquarter, Bhopal who was the Chief Guest stakeholders consultation in Madhya Pradesh with the objective of ‘fast implementation of MVAA 19 to save lives on roads’ started the event by explaining the reasons behind road accidents. He elaborated on the actions  taken by the police department to prevent road accidents and save lives. He said that there are more than 18 lakh vehicles registered in Madhya Pradesh and maximum accidents occurs during 9 am to 12 noon and between 6 pm and 9 pm as against the popular belief of high accidents during night time. He also added that in Madhya Pradesh number of road accidents is more on State highways and within the cities. Grievous injurious are reported more at traffic junctions. Accidents even at zebra crossings causing death of pedestrians have been reported. He also said that people’s awareness and participation are very important to minimize road accidents.

Dr. S.K. Saxena, Senior Surgical Specialist & Civil Surgeon and Former Medical Adviser to Human Rights Commission said that the role of a good Samaritan, especially his/her promptness is very crucial to save lives and thus to reduce fatalities among road accident victims. He highlighted the need for training on road safety and first aid for all from the primary stage in school up to the college to enable them to save lives of road accident victims.

Dr. Rahul Tiwari, Assistant Professor of Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT) spoke about the Government of India’s efforts to make over all changes in the existing system through automation of vehicle registration, issuing driving licenses, detection of traffic violation and over speeding etc. He also explained how implementation of Intelligent Traffic Management System could help in detecting traffic violations and help in proper implementation of MVAA 2019. He mentioned about the government initiatives like Saarthi Portal  for issuing of driving licenses and Vahan Portal  for registration of vehicles. He stressed upon the need for implementation of automatic surveillance system which could be a deterrent to traffic violation. Dr Pradip Nandi, Director General NCHSE was also part of the event.

Shri Hemant Upadhyay, Advisor, Consumer Voice presented the Overview of road safety and Motor Vehicle Amendment Act, 2019 and pointed out that while during 2018-19 number of road accidents have decreased in some of the states like Tamil Nadu, road accidents continuously increased in Madhya Pradesh. He said that maximum fatalities or grievous injuries are suffered by the working age group, which not only affects but the entire family financially. He stressed on timely implementation of MVAA 2019 which will help in decreasing road accidents in Madhya Pradesh.

Stakeholders Consultation in Uttar Pradesh – “Diligent Enforcement of MVAA 2019 For Saving Lives On Roads”

Stakeholders Consultation in Uttar Pradesh – “Diligent Enforcement of MVAA 2019 For Saving Lives On Roads”

Stakeholders Consultation in Uttar Pradesh – “Diligent Enforcement of MVAA 2019 For Saving Lives On Roads”

A state-level stakeholders consultation was organized in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh on 8th October 2021  by Consumer Guild with Consumer VOICE to strengthen road safety to discuss “Diligent Enforcement Of MVAA 2019 For Saving Lives On Roads.” The key points that were discussed included road safety scenario, challenges, perceptions of common people towards MVAA2019, gaps identified and how road safety strengthening can be taken forward with collaborative efforts.

The guest experts who joined were Shri P.S Satyarthi, Deputy Transport Commissioner (Road Safety), Shri Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, ACP Lucknow (Central) , Dr. Satish, Assistant Professor, KGMU, Lucknow, Shri J.P Pandey, Traffic Inspector, Lucknow , Shri Mohit Singh, BIS Lucknow, Ms. Rinki Sharma, Consumer VOICE, Shri Pradeep Singh, Dr. Neeraj Gupta besides road safety experts ,representatives of consumer organisations, advocates and media persons.

Transport Department – Highlighting the efforts made in the area of road safety, Shri Pushpsen Satyarthi, Deputy Transport Commissioner (Road Safety) said that “The transport department is working on road safety in UP to make state roads safer for the people. UP Government has implemented the MVAA 2019 and Road Safety Cell is coordinating with all the stakeholders for proper implementation of the Act. We are working for diligent enforcement of the Act, good Samaritan and several other important provisions which are included in Act to strengthen road safety.  U.P Transport department is in the process of a making a rule for non-motorized vehicles with coordination of Lucknow Nagar Nigam Lucknow (municipality department).

Police – Shri Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Additional Commissioner Police, Lucknow, (Central) joined the workshop and reinforced public participation and awareness and said that this is the most important factor for effective implementation of MVAA 2019 besides several other provision to enhance road safety and to make police enforcement drives more effective to prevent casualties on roads. He also emphasized that it’s a collaborative responsibility and every citizen of the country is a stakeholder in road safety. 

Bureau of Indian Standard (Standardization authority) – Shri Mohit Singh, of Bureau of Indian Standards Lucknow Branch made a presentation on ISI Helmet standards set by Bureau of Indian Standards. It is now compulsory to wear only ISI Mark helmets. Various technical aspects of wearing helmets and road safety were also discussed.

Medical Fraternity – Dr. Satish, Assistant Professor, King George Medical University, Lucknow shared the views on emergency care and golden hour after any accident. According to Dr. Satish those who are affected or killed are mostly people in their prime productive age. The highest burden of injuries and fatalities is borne disproportionately by poor people, as they are mostly pedestrians, cyclists, and passengers of buses and minibuses. “Golden hour” means the time period lasting one hour following a traumatic injury during which there is highest likelihood of preventing death by providing prompt medical care. He also discussed about provisions in current law regarding golden hour and how it is saving lives.

Shri Abhishek Shrivastava, advocate and chairperson of Consumer Guild presented the various provisions of the MVAA2019.

Ms. Rinki Sharma, Project Lead, Consumer VOICE said that the consultation mainly focused on the six vital pillars of road safety which are seen as the best global practice to reduce road casualties. Uttar Pradesh has taken lead in strengthening road safety and it’s high time to have a consultation processes with the concerned stakeholders to make the necessary diligent enforcement of the act and rules.

Packaged Pasteurised Toned Milk

Packaged Pasteurised Toned Milk

Packaged Pasteurised Toned Milk

packaged milk. However, that area is too cluttered with a host of different milk brands claiming safety, purity and strength. To know what is there in such claims, we evaluated nine (9) regular selling brands of packaged pasteurised toned milk. Give this report a careful read to make your pack of milk benign as it reveals the best brand to choose from.

A Consumer Voice Report

In India, milk consumption is greater in states in- cluding Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. In the packaged milk category, we have full cream milk, toned milk, double toned milk etc. Let us brush
up our knowledge about the types of milk here.

Packaged milk can be categorized according to fat and solids-not-fat (SNF) content as follows:
a) Full-cream milk: Fat 6.0 per cent and SNF 9 per cent (minimum)
b) Toned milk: Fat 3.0 per cent and SNF 8.5 per cent (minimum)
c) Double-toned milk: Fat 1.5 per cent and SNF 9 per cent (minimum)

How we test

We followed FSS Regulations and relevant Indian Standard IS: 13688 to conduct the comparative testing and evaluation of packaged pasteurised toned milk.

Did you know?

Full-cream milk means milk or a combination of buffalo or cow milk or a product prepared by combination of both that has been standardized to fat and solids-not-fat (SNF) percentage, by adjustment/addition of milk solids. It shall meet the minimum requirement of six per cent for fat and nine per cent for SNF.
Toned milk is prepared by admixture of cow or buffalo milk or both with fresh skimmed milk; or by admixture of cow or buffalo milk or both that has been standardised to fat and solids-not- fat percentage by adjustment of milk solids. It shall be pasteurised and shall show a negative Phosphatase Test.

Brands tested

The following table reflects which brand scores what and what position they secured in this compara- tive product testing.

Rank Score out of 100 Brand

MRP,

Rs

Net Quan- tity, ml Manufactured/Marketed By
1 94 Verka 24 500 Ropar distt Co Operative Producers Union Ltd
2 93 Namaste India 24 500 NIF Pvt. Ltd
3 92 Nova 24 500 Sterling Agro Industries Ltd
4 91 Mother Dairy 24 500 Mother Dairy Fruit & Vegetable Pvt. Ltd.,
4 91 DMS 24 500 Delhi Milk Scheme
5 90 Ananda 24 500 Gopaljee Dairy Foods Pvt. Ltd.,
5 90 Vita 24 500 The Ballabgarh Co Operative Milk Producers Union Ltd
6 89 Paras 24 500 VRS Foods Ltd.,
7 87 Amul 24 500 Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd.,

 

Rating: >90 – Excellent *****, 71-90- Very Good ****, 51-70- Good ***, 31-50- Average **, upto 30 – Poor*

CV Recommendations

Top Performer

verka

Value for Money Brand

verka

Key findings

1. Verka scored on top and has been ranked number 1 among the brands tested followed by Namaste India and Nova.
2. In our comparative test, we have recognised Verka as the Value for Money Brand too.
3. Verka had highest fat and SNF followed by Namaste India.
4. Mother Dairy was found with highest protein content followed by Nova and DMS.
5. Namaste India was found with highest cal- cium content followed by Verka and DMS.
6. All brands of packaged milk were found free from adulteration such as Detergent, Caustic Soda, Formaldehyde and Malamine. Urea was found well within standard limit.
7. Most of the brands have just met the mini- mum requirement of 3 per cent for fat and
8.5 per cent of SNF.
8. All the brands of milk have been found within specified limits of heavy metal and microbio- logically.
9. FSSAI has prescribed microbiological safety standard for Salmonella and Listeria Mono- cytogenes at retailer level only. Other microbiological requirements should also be applicable at retailer level so that consumer get safe product.
10. Consumers are advised not to buy milk pack- ets kept in open, instead prefer to buy milk from retailers who keep it in deep freezer/ refrigerator.

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE (SCORE) OF PACKAGED TONED MILK

Brand

Parameter

Wt.

%

Verka

Namaste India

Nova

Mother Dairy

DMS

Ananda

Vita

Paras

Amul

Physico- chemical Tests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net weight

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Milk Fat

15

13.50

12.90

12.60

12.00

12.00

11.70

11.70

11.40

10.80

Milk solids not fat

12

10.80

10.56

8.88

8.64

8.64

9.36

9.84

9.36

9.12

Protein

10

8.20

7.20

8.60

9.20

8.40

8.20

7.40

7.80

6.80

Calcium

8

7.33

7.76

7.08

6.48

7.10

6.66

6.82

6.25

5.41

Urea

6

5.05

5.15

5.39

5.34

5.36

5.37

5.21

5.34

5.39

Heavy Metals as lead & arsenic

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Microbiological tests: Salmonella and Listeria Monocytogenes

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Adulterants as Detergent, Caustic Soda, Formalin, Melamine

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

Phosphates test

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Packing & Marking

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

 

TEST PARAMETERS

Milk Fat

Fat is an essential part of any balanced diet, pro- viding essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and a concentrated source of energy. As per the national standards, fat content in toned milk shall not be less than three per cent by mass. All brands have met the minimum required limit of (3 per cent) of fat content. Brand Verka had highest fat content followed by Namaste India and Nova.

Milk Solids Not Fat

Milk has mainly two parts, fat and milk solids not fat (SNF). Apart from fat, all other solids such as protein, lactose, vitamins and minerals together make up SNF. It shall not be less than 8.5 per cent by mass in toned milk. All the brands have met the minimum requirement of standard. Brand Verka had highest SNF followed by Namaste India and Vita.

Protein

Milk is source of fat, protein and calcium. The national standard has not prescribed any require- ment of protein; however, protein is good for health. It helps keep your muscles strong and healthy. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Pro- tein is also important for growth and develop- ment in children. Brand Mother Dairy has been found with highest protein content followed by Nova and DMS.

Calcium

Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life. Calcium deficiency can lead to rickets and poor blood clotting and osteoporosis. Milk is a well-known source of calcium therefore milk is expected to be rich in calcium content. Brand Namaste India has been found with highest calcium content fol- lowed by Verka and DMS.

Urea

Urea shall not be more than 700 ppm. Urea has been found however, all the brands were well within the standard limit.

Tests for adulteration

Although financial gain is considered to be one of the major reasons for milk adulteration, inadequate supply for the increasing popula- tion all over the world has paved the ground for this as well. All brands of milk were found free from adulteration of adulterants namely detergent, caustic soda, formalin and malamine and passed these tests by meeting the require- ments of national standards. Also, the above- mentioned adulterants were not found in all the brands tested.

Phosphatase activity

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme naturally present in all raw milks and is considered to be an indicator of proper milk pasteurisation. Alkaline Phosphatase test is used to indicate whether milk has been adequately pasteurised or whether it has been contaminated with raw milk after pasteurisation. All brands passed this test.

Heavy metals

Heavy metals are toxic or poisonous at high concentrations. We analysed the milk samples for presence of lead and arsenic. As per the re- quirement laid down by FSS Regulation, lead should not be more than 2 ppm and arsenic not more than 0.1 ppm.

Lead and Arsenic have been not found in all brands. Therefore all the brands passed the tests for heavy metals.

Microbiological tests

Microbiological contamination is a very serious issue for milk. Microorganisms are responsible for many food-borne diseases. FSSAI (Food regulator) has specified requirements for mi- crobiological safety for milk at market (retail) level. The safety requirements for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes are only applicable at retailer level.However, process hygiene criteria standards aerobic plate count and coliform count are applicable at plant level only.

We conducted tests for Salmonella and Listeria Monocytogenes. All the brands have met speci- fied limits thus safe for consumption.

Packing

Milk should be packed in food grade poly pack to retain its natural properties within its shelf life.

All brands have been properly packed in poly packs.

Marking

All the brands provided required information.

Net quantity

Net weight shall be within tolerance limits of legal metrology.

All the brands have been found as per claims.

Do Not Break the Cold Chain

A high level of microbial count in milk may be due to not maintaining cold chain during storage and transportation (below 8 degrees C) from plant to retailer as also from retailer to consumer.
Food Safety Standard Regulations and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) state that milk should meet the specified requirement of Aerobic count and coliform content at processing/plant level only. The fact is proper temperature needs to be maintained all the way to the delivery point – the cold chain must be maintained at 8 degrees C to avoid microbial growth. Consumers are advised to buy milk from authorised booths/retailing units of manufacturers. They should avoid buying open milk packets kept in grocery shops.

Conclusion and recommendations

We tested nine popular packaged pasteurized toned milk brands on a range of quality, safety and acceptability parameters. Milk is expected to be high in fat content as well as milk solids not fat (SNF), which is an indicator of the quality of milk. The brands have been further subjected to adulteration and safety tests i.e. detergent, urea, caustic soda, formaldehyde and melamine, microbiological tests, tests for lead and arsenic, phosphatase test. The tests have been conducted at an independent, NABL-accredited laboratory. This report will, among other things, put to rest most of our concerns about milk adulteration and contamination, and affirm or dispute the health- related claims of leading brands of packaged toned milk. It may be noted that the food regulator of India prescribes different microbiological requirements for plant level and retailer level. Based on the analysis and evaluation of all test parameters and observations brand Verka scored top among all the brands followed by Namaste India and Nova.

Consumers are advised not to buy milk packets kept in open. Buy milk from retailers who keep it in deep freezer/refrigerator.

Our advice

• For better shelf life, store the poly-packed milk below 8 degrees C.
• Consume the poly-packed milk after boiling, because boiling of milk kills the microbial load.
• Raw milk should also be boiled as early as possible.
• Tetra-packed milk is sterilized – that is, all living organisms are killed. While it is safe and does not need boiling, it is expensive for most consumers.

Boil It!

Milk is a perishable product and tends to spoil if not stored at a holding temperature below 8 degrees C. Therefore it should be boiled before consumption to prevent microbiological contamination.
A large number of people heat and re-heat the same milk again and again, and that too at a high temperature for a long time, thus killing the nutrients. According to experts, milk subjected to less heating retains its nutrient value. Experts say milk should ideally be boiled not more than twice and not for more than 2 to 3 minutes.

Basically

• Do not boil milk for extended period of
time.
• Do not leave your milk out in the open
after boiling.
• Do not heat milk repeatedly.
• Stir the milk while boiling.
• Do not use microwave ovens to heat and
re-heat milk.
• Use ultra-high-temperature milk that comes in tetra packs. It guarantees both nutrition and convenience.

Terms to Know

Pasteurisation
It is the process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. This process slows microbial growth in food.
Unlike sterilisation, pasteurisation is not intended to kill all microorganisms in the food. Instead, pasteurisation aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease.

Sterilisation
Sterilisation refers to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills all forms of life, including transmissible agents (fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) contained in a food, liquid, etc.
To keep milk for longer than few days at ambient temperature, it needs to be sterilised.
More recently, UHT processes have been introduced. When UHT is combined with sterile handling and container technology (such as aseptic packaging), it can even be stored unrefrigerated for 6–9 months.

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