What is Basmati Rice and how is different from other varieties?

Basmati Rice


Basmati is a type of long-grain aromatic rice.  Basmati rice is a special quality of rice that is grown in India and Pakistan. Basmati rice has a unique fragrance and flavor caused due to presence of a chemical called 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. This chemical is found in Basmati rice at about 90 ppm (part per million), which is 12 times more than non-basmati rice varieties.

With effect from 5 February 2016, basmati rice is a registered GI (geographical indication) product. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), as registered proprietor of the GI, is responsible for putting in place a system for administration of GI and authentication of the product reaching consumers in India and abroad.

It is grown for many centuries in the specific geographical area, at the Himalayan foothills of Indian sub-continent, blessed with characteristics as extra- long slender grains that elongate at least twice of their original size with a characteristics soft and fluffy texture upon cooking, delicious taste, superior aroma and distinct flavor. Agro- climatic conditions of the specific geographical area as well as method of harvesting, processing and aging attribute these characteristic features to Basmati rice. Owing to its unique characteristics the “ scented Pearl” lends a touch of class that can transform even the most ordinary meal into a gourmet’s delight. Basmati is also available in white or brown versions, depending on the extent of the milling process.


The areas of Basmati Rice production in India are in the states of J & K, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand and western Uttar Pradesh.


India is the leading exporter of the Basmati Rice to the global market. The country has exported 40,00,471.56 MT of Basmati Rice to the world for the worth of Rs. 21,604.58 crores (or 3,230.24 US$ Mill.) during the year 2016-17

Major Export Destinations (2016-17): Saudi Arabia, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Iraq and Kuwait.


Grain size and shape

Basmati is a long grain rice. The non-basmati rice comes in all different shapes and sizes- long, slender, short and thick, bead and round.


Basmati has a characteristic fragrance and flavor. It contains a chemical compound called 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline which gives it aroma. Whereas non-basmati varieties, doesn’t have an aroma.


Like wine and cheese, the older it gets the better flavor and aroma it would extract. Hence the aged Basmati costs higher than the recent productions.

Post cooking elongation

Basmati rice becomes almost double its size on cooking. Such a significant increase in size cannot be seen in non-basmati varieties. This makes it one of the highly demanded rice in the world.


Cooked grains of Basmati rice are characteristically free flowing rather than sticky.


Yield of basmati rice from the agricultural land is almost half the non-basmati varieties. This is also one of the reasons for its higher costs.
Basmati is grown only in the Himalayan region of India or few parts of Pakistan whereas non-basmati varieties could be grown anywhere in the world.  

More breakage

Long and slender grains of basmati are more prone to breakage in the production process which involves milling and polishing of rice grain.

Consumer VOICE experts tested 12 brands of  basmati rice on basis of grain length/breadth ratio, average precooked grain length,  elongation ratio and most importantly DNA analysis was conducted to check the adulteration of pure basmati with non-basmati rice.  Click to know complete results for the best basmati rice.

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